Language Design: Type Annotations

Published on 2017-07-21.

Why is ident: Type better than Type ident?

Names are more important

In expressive languages, developers generally need to use less temporary variables. This means that in a typical piece of code there are fewer names defined, but those names carry higher importance.

ident: Type let’s developers focus on the names by placing them first.

Type inference

In languages with type inference1 it also ensures that the names can be found at a glance, regardless of whether the type was specified explicitly or was inferred by the compiler:

val x: String = "hello"
val y: Int = 23
val z = 42
// vs. (hypothetical syntax)
val String x = "hello"
val Int y = 23
val z = 42

Input before output

The i: Int syntax naturally leads to a method syntax where the inputs (parameters) are defined before the output (result type), which in turn leads to more consistency with lambda syntax (whose inputs are also defined before its output).

Consistency between definition and usage

The way a class or method is defined should mirror the way it can be used. (See Why is [] better than <> for generic types?.)

Definition before usage

A generic type parameter should be declared before it is used. Otherwise it’s hard to tell to what a type argument refers to:

class Id<T>() {
  // Does the result type T refer to the class' <T> in scope,
  // or to the method's <T> that comes after it?
  T id<T>(T \ivalue) { ... }

Language Comparison

As languages have explored various designs2, we can check whether they satisfy the last three properties mentioned above:


<T> T id(T value) { ... }


T id<T>(T value) { ... }


fun <T> id(value: T): T { ... }


T id<T>(T \ivalue) { ... }


def id[T](value: T): T = ...

Only the last approach delivers all three desirable properties:

  Input before output Definition/usage
Definition before
Java No No Yes
C# No Yes No
Kotlin Yes No Yes
Ceylon No Yes No
Scala Yes Yes Yes
  1. type inference means that the compiler can figure out types without having a developer writing them down explicitly 

  2. focusing on curly-brace languages here, as languages like Haskell, ML and OCaml, Idris have slightly different design optima