Language Design: Unified Condition Expressions


Published on 2019-09-21. Last updated on 2022-06-24

How to Parse?

As a first approximation – especially if an existing language shall be adapted – it makes sense to build a feature-reduced version of unified condition expressions using a different keyword, in parallel to existing syntax.

After unified condition expressions have gained sufficient maturity and functionality, they can then be switched over to the “real” keyword, and any old implementations of ternary operators, switch-cases or if-expressions can be removed.

Level 1: Basics
case         // separate keyword
  person ..  // `..` to indicate end of common condition fragment
  == john { true }
  == jane { true }
else false

From a semantic point of view, the crucial requirement is that the common fragment is only evaluated once during execution.

This means that during typechecking, the combined expression of the common fragment with each individual branch has to be taken into account, but the common fragment has to be retained until code-generation.

Level 2: Partial Conditions
case person == ..  // partial common condition fragment
  john { true }
  jane { true }
else false

At level 2, the notion of the condition’s common fragment is made more flexible:

Now the common fragment can be partial; i. e. the common fragment may not be a valid expression on its own.

The challenge here is how such code can be expressed best in the AST.

Level 3: Partial Branches
case person ..
  .firstName == "john" { true }
  .age + 23 > jane.age { true }
else false

At this stage the focus is on checking and ensuring that the syntax introduced at level 1 is supporting the whole language, and is not special-cased, e. g. to binary comparison operators.

Level 3 requires introducing indentation-based syntax. Depending on how complex the rest of the language is, this can be a rather big leap.

Level 4: Pattern Matching
case person is ..
  Person("john",       _, 42) { true }
  Person("jane", "smith",  _) { true }
else false
Level 5: Bindings
case person is ..
  Person("john",  "miller", $age) { age.toString } // introduce binding for john's age 
  Person("jane", $lastName,   23) { lastName }     // ... and jane's last name
else false
(Optional) Unified condition expressions: Indentation
case person == // no `..` needed to indicate end of common condition fragment
  john then true  // {} has been replaced with then
  jane then true
else false